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EuroSDR official Publication 62 (Book + cdRom)

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EuroSDR Official Publication No 62 (Book + CDROM)

2 Reports:
- Radiometric aspects of digital photogrammetric images
by Eija Honkavaara, Lauri Markelin, Roman Arbiol, Lucas Martínez
- Mobile Mapping - Road Environment Mapping using Mobile Laser Scanning
by Harri Kaartinen, Juha Hyyppä, Antero Kukko, Matti Lehtomäki, Anttoni Jaakkola, George Vosselman, Sander Oude Elberink, Martin Rutzinger, Shi Pu, Matti Vaaja

Abstract:
- Radiometric aspects of digital photogrammetric images

This report presents the results and conclusions of the EuroSDR project "Radiometric aspects of digital photogrammetric images" that was carried out during 2008-2011. The project was a European-wide multi-site research project, where the participants represented stakeholders of photogrammetric data in National Mapping Agencies, software development and research. The project began with a review phase, which consisted of a literature review and a questionnaire to the stakeholders of photogrammetric data. The review indicated excellent radiometric potential of the novel imaging systems, but also revealed many shortcomings in the radiometric processing lines. The second phase was an empirical investigation, for which radiometrically controlled flight campaigns were carried out in Finland and in Spain using the Leica Geosystems ADS40 and Intergraph DMC large-format photogrammetric cameras. The investigations considered vicarious radiometric calibration and validation of sensors, spatial resolution assessment, radiometric processing of photogrammetric image blocks and practical applications. The results proved the stability and quality of evaluated imaging systems with respect to radiometry and optical system. The first new-generation methods for reflectance image production and equalization of photogrammetric image blocks provided promising results and were also functional from the productivity and usability points of view. For reflectance images, an accuracy of up to 5% was obtained without need of ground reference measurements. Application oriented results indicated that automatic interpretation methods will benefit from the optimal use of radiometrically accurate stereoscopic photogrammetric imagery. Many improvements are still needed for the processing chains in order to obtain full advantage of the radiometric potential of photogrammetric sensors.

During the project, the quantitative radiometric processing in photogrammetric processing lines was not mature technology at all. Operational applications used qualitative and statistical methods in assessing and processing the radiometry, and the output image products were mainly used in visual interpretation. The major emphasis in this investigation was to consider the radiometry from the quantitative point of view. This report summarizes many points of view to the radiometric processing and all the evaluated methods can be further developed and implemented as automated tools in modern photogrammetric processes of National Mapping Agencies in the future.

Abstract:
- Mobile Mapping - Road Environment Mapping using Mobile Laser Scanning

The objective of the "EuroSDR Mobile Mapping - Road Environment Mapping using Mobile Laser Scanning" project was to evaluate the quality of mobile laser scanning systems and methods with special focus on accuracy and feasibility. Mobile laser scanning (MLS) systems can collect high density point cloud data with high accuracy.

A permanent test field established in the project suits well for verifying and comparing the performance of different mobile laser scanning systems. The test field was measured with several commercial and research systems, such as RIEGL VMX-250, Streetmapper 360 and Optech Lynx of the TerraTec AS, FGI Roamer and FGI Sensei. A geodetic network of terrestrial laser scannings was used as the reference for the quality analysis. Each system provided the data using the system specific pre-processing standards. The system comparison focussing on planimetric and elevation errors using filtered DEM, poles and building corners as reference objects, revealed the high quality point clouds generated by all systems with good GNSS conditions. With all professional systems properly calibrated, the elevation accuracy was better than 3.5 cm up to 35 m distance. The best system had 2.5 cm planimetric accuracy even with the range of 45 m. The planimetric errors increase as a function of range, but moderately if the system was properly calibrated. The main focus on MLS development in near-future should concentrate on the improvements of trajectory solution, especially under non-ideal conditions, using both improved hardware (additional sensors) and software solutions (post-processing).

The benchmarking of algorithms did not collect a high number of inputs. The results obtained by ITC and FGI could be used to assess the present state of the art in point cloud processing of MLS. Currently, a level of 80-90 % correct detections can be obtained for object recognition (to those objects most feasible for MLS data) and the rest needs to be done in interactive editing process. Since the goal of MLS processing is to have high automation supported by minimum amount of manual work and to create accurate 3D models of roadsides and cities, there is still a significant contribution needed for future research.

Finnish Geodetic Institute, Mobile Mapping research group (www.fgi.fi/mobimap), continues the test site development for MLS, the benchmarking of MLS methods and putting MLS data to public use also in the future.

ISBN: 9789051798456
 
Size: 210x297 mm. (width x height)
Number of pages: 101 Pages


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